HTTP/1.1 200 OK Cache-Control: no-cache, private Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8 Date: Thu, 03 Dec 2020 22:20:24 GMT 在线观看你懂的网站

房企密集发行境外债券 专家:境内融资仍是核心融资来源

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 索菲亚披露2015年报 营业收入31.96亿 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

南京地王因拖欠工程款停工 “一成首付”重现江湖

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

如果你觉得现在的杜兰特骨瘦如柴,那你得瞧瞧他在蒙特罗斯基督教会学校时的瘦弱身板。
8. 杰西卡?戈麦斯
总排名76位的新加坡管理大学(Singapore Management University)李光前商学院(Lee Kong Chian School of Business)是首家进入这一排行榜的新加坡商学院。今年共7家亚洲商学院上榜。李光前商学院校友在亚洲商学院中最具国际流动性。他们在流动性指标方面排名第25,比在亚洲商学院中流动性排第二的台湾国立中山大学(National Sun Yat-Sen University)高57位。
n. 饰带,花边,缎带
有了这个支架,吊床随处都能搭。可以搭在水上、雪上、公路上。
斗转星移关我何事?我的癖好才最重要。
Coke's Kent is not the only chief executive who spoke out in 2013 about the merits of immigration reform for big business.

Everybody has heard by now that health care companies are promising hunting grounds for job seekers, and the New Year will see hiring perk up elsewhere, too.
皮卡大战:如果把得奖的问题抛在一边,福特的全铝皮卡生产起来很不容易,卖得也比较慢,这就为快速崛起的道奇公羊(Dodge Ram)1500提供了机会。同时,日产也试图忘掉该公司第一款全尺寸皮卡,也就是采用双拖斗造型的第二代Titan皮卡的失利。汽车业老将约翰o克拉福西克向《汽车新闻》透露了这个行业的最大秘密:在5万美元以上的市场区间,平价品牌的皮卡和SUV的销量要超过德系豪华品牌。
Enrollment: 503
1. Apple. Brand love: 57% / Rank: 32
Security questions risks

Footnotes

  • “抢人大战”告诉你:城市与楼市“躺赚”的时代过去了
  • China will not see nor allow massive unemployment of particular groups this year, as the government is capable of ensuring a favorable environment to generate jobs.

Justin Bieber rounded out the top five, honoured for his work with Pencils of Promise and his Believe Charity Drive.
China's best performances by subject this year come from Tsinghua University, with three top-10 places, and Peking University, with two top-10 places. Tsinghua University finishes eighth in both Architecture/Built Environment and in Engineering (Civil and Structural). Tsinghua comes in 10th place in the world's Materials Science subject rankings.
让它具有一定的危险性,因为这也会让你的“华生”兴趣盎然。
The fastest growing start-ups tend to be global in their outlook. The immigration restrictions already imposed by President Trump in the US and those under consideration as part of the UK’s separation from the EU are likely to be a hindrance in the coming year for hiring.
体操、蹦床、竞技体操、艺术体操、
Yes, 2014 is an absolute total disaster just waiting to ignite. In 'Doomsday poll: 87% risk of stock crash by year-end' we analyzed 10 major crash warnings since early this year. Since then, more incoming bogies raced across our radar screen. Ticking time bombs from Congress, the Supreme Court, sex, carbon emissions, Big Oil, NSA, IRS, Tea Party austerity. Relentless. Mind-numbing.

实地走访卫浴市场 符合新标准产品暂未普及

References

View Abstract